About The Kybernology
Like a building, any body of knowledge (BOK) has three essential dimensions, namely its functions, construction (architecture, design), and building materials. All the three are subject to differentiation, change and innovation. Let us call the state-of-the art of any condition of the three at a time as paradigm.
The paradigm of Public Administration (PA) for example, has changed several times. The lessons from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, ca 1930) and the experience of the Third World Development Program implementation since the fiftieth of the last century, encouraged the reorientation of the function, the reconstruction of the structure, and the fostering of the PA’s building materials (Fred W. Riggs, ed., Frontiers of Development Administration, 1971). The impact of the TVA was so significant and the PA’s paradigm relevance with the Third World’s development program was highly valued, that created a new BOK, i. e. Development Administration.
The paradigmatic change of the PA was happened again in the end of the sixtieth, when the United States of America (USA) was in the time of turbulence and the PA in the time of revolution. The BOK of PA was reconstructed and its result was known as the New Public Administration (Frank Marini, ed., Toward a New Public Administration: The Minnowbrook Perspectives, 1971). The reconstruction was made on the basic assumptions that the politics-administration dichotomy has come to an end, and that President should be politician-administrator, in line with Platonic wisdom thousands years ago: the philosopher-king.
Indonesia has had bitter experiences with post independence (1945) turbulences. The first one happened in the mid of the sixtieth, known as the Indonesia Communist Party’s rebellion. In the beginning of the ninetieth, Indonesia also situated in “a time of turbulence” for the second time, culminating in the fall of Soeharto regime (1998). But they have no significant impact on either BOK of Politics, Economics, or Social Sciences related to the turbulence. Of course, there was little cry from the University of Indonesia, shouted out that the Economics has died, and here a short sigh from the University of Gadjah Mada, exclaimed that the Studies of Government now is facing cul-ce-sac, but that’s all.
The natural turbulence struck Indonesia and other Asia countries at the end of December 2004 is said to be one of the worst in history of mankind, not only the turbulence itself, but even more its impact on human life and natural resources. It invited condolence and global solidarity of many, many nations and NGOs coming for help and relief. In the meantime, New Year edition of the daily newspaper, Kompas, issued an article entitled “Bangsa Yang Hidup Bersama Bahaya,” which means “A Nation Destined to Live with Danger.”
According to scientific analyses, some of the turbulences, especially social-political ones, resulted from misconduct of the powerful actors responsible for the policy making and policy implementation of the state in all levels of government and administration, while the victims are those who are powerless. Human conduct depends on the construction of the knowledge instructed and value internalized that build-up the mindset of those in power. If so, what’s wrong with the function, building materials, and construction of the BOK charged in the brain of the man in power?
Bestuurskunde introduced by the Dutch Colonial Administration in Indonesia at the beginning of the last century. The origin of Bestuurskunde can be traced back to a little book consists of 32 pages written by the last raadpensionaris of Holland and Westfriesland, Mr L. P. van de Spiegel. The book entitled Schets der Regeerkunde, in betrekking tot hare oogmerk en middelen (Outline of the Regeerkunde, its goal and means). It was published 5 years after the writer’s death. The preface of the book was written in February 1st 1796. Regeerkunde — the early concept of Bestuurskunde — “is de Wetenschap om eene Burgermaatschappij te leiden, ter verkrijging van het grootste Geluk, waar voor dezelve vatbaar is, zonder onwettige benadeeling van andere.” This definition denotes that Bestuurskunde (the art of steering) is the science which lead the human effort to gain the highest Good of life without abusing the right of others. The highest good comprising all things fulfilling the universal human rights then declared by the United Nations on December 10th, 1949 (see G. A. van Poelje, Bestuurskunde, deel VI “Algemene Inleiding tot de Bestuurskunde,” 1953). The translation of the “Algemene” (Pengantar Umum Ilmu Pemerintahan, July, 1959) made by B. Mang Reng Say defined Regeerkunde as “Ilmu Pengetahuan yang bertujuan untuk memimpin hidupbersama manusia ke arah kebahagiaan yang sebesar-besarnya, tanpa merugikan orang lain secara tidak sah.” The learning institution of Bestuurskunde, upgraded to Bestuurswetenschap and then Bestuurswetenschappen, gained higher academik performance, and offered Doctoral (Ph. D.) degree to the students. Two former PhD graduates were Dr R. E. Berends and Dr F. Breedsvelt (1928 – 1933).
When the government of Indonesia adopted the Bestuurskunde in university teaching in the mid of the last century, it was placed under the Political Sciences, just as government studies (kajian pemerintahan), lower, applicative level of Politics. In another, methodological words, Ilmu Pemerintahan so to say, has been uprooted from the human side and put it in the power (political) side of the societal phenomena. Since then, the beneficiaries of what so called Ilmu Pemerintahan were those in power, while the powerless people stayed poor and victimized.
The only way to rescue the people from any next turbulence, is to pull the Bestuurskunde back to its proper place at the human side of societal phenomena, restore its function, reconstruct its BOK, and redesign its training methods and technology.(see Figure 1). The replacement is expected to adjust the existing unbalanced frame of reference in either policy making, or policy implementation process, between the government as state service provider on powerful, and the people as state service customers on powerless position. The replacement of Bestuurskunde (Bestuurwetenschap and Bestuurswetenschappen) resulted in a new BOK called Kybernology. Etymologically, the new word comprising two root words. Greek kybernán and -logia. The word Bestuurskunde rooted from the Dutch besturen, English steering, and Greek kybernán. Kybernology (kybernán + o + logy) is the Greek name of Bestuurskunde, Bestuurswetenschap, and Bestuurswetenschappen, the landmark of the new BOK, a newcomer among the members of the community of sciences.
Through learning process of postgraduate programs at IPDN, some other universities, and scientific discussions held by many institutions, Kybernology developed into coherent and complete BOK, ontology, epistemology, and axiology. Since 1996 higher learning institutions having Kybernology as core curriculum offered Master’s and since 2000 offered PhD degree to the students.